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He renewed his relationship with Cleopatra and, from this point on, Alexandria was his home. He married Cleopatra according to the Egyptian rite a letter quoted in Suetonius suggests this , although he was married at the time to Octavia Minor , sister of his fellow triumvir Octavian. He and Cleopatra had another child, Ptolemy Philadelphus.


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Cleopatra was also given the title of "Queen of Kings" by Antonius. Cleopatra was present with a fleet of her own. According to Plutarch, Cleopatra took flight with her ships at the height of the battle, and Antony followed her. To finance her war against Octavian, Cleopatra took gold from the tomb of Alexander the Great , which had been previously robbed.

There are a number of unverifiable stories about Cleopatra. One of the best known is that she playfully bet Antony, at one of the lavish dinners which they shared, that she could spend ten million sestertii on a dinner.


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He accepted the bet. The next night, she had a conventional, unspectacular meal served; he was ridiculing this, when she ordered the second course — only a cup of strong vinegar. She then removed one of her priceless pearl earrings, dropped it into the vinegar, allowed it to dissolve, and drank the mixture. The calcium carbonate in pearls does dissolve in vinegar, but slowly unless the pearl is first crushed.

The ancient sources, particularly the Roman ones, are in general agreement that Cleopatra killed herself by inducing an asp Egyptian cobra to bite her. The oldest source is Strabo , who was alive at the time of the event and might even have been in Alexandria. He says that there are two stories — that she applied a toxic ointment or that she was bitten by an asp on her breast — but he said in his writings that he was not sure if Cleopatra poisoned herself or was murdered.

After studying historical texts and consulting with toxicologists, the historian concluded that the asp could not have caused the quick and pain-free death claimed by most sources, since the asp venom paralyses parts of the body, starting with the eyes, before causing death. Living when and where she did, Cleopatra would have known of the violent and painful effects of an asp's venomous bite, so it is unlikely that it was the cause of her death.

Also, the asp's bite is not always fatal. Schaefer and his toxicologist Dietrich Mebs have theorized that Cleopatra used a mixture of hemlock , wolfsbane , and opium. He ordered his freedman Epaphroditus to guard her to prevent her from committing suicide, because he allegedly wanted to present her in his triumph. But Cleopatra was able to deceive Epaphroditus and kill herself nevertheless. Other stories state that it was hidden in a vase and that she poked it with a spindle until it got angry enough to bite her on the arm.

Finally, he indicates that, in Octavian's triumphal march back in Rome, an effigy of Cleopatra was part of the parade that had an asp clinging to it. Suetonius , writing about the same time as Plutarch, also says Cleopatra died from an asp bite. Classical sources say that Cleopatra was bitten on the arm, [56] [57] [58] but she is more usually depicted in medieval and Renaissance iconography with asps at her breast, a tradition followed by Shakespeare.

Plutarch tells us of the death of Antony. When his armies deserted him and joined with Octavian, he cried out that Cleopatra had betrayed him. She locked herself in her monument with only her two handmaidens, fearing his wrath, and sent messengers to tell Antony that she was dead. Believing them, Antony stabbed himself in the stomach with his sword, and lay on his couch to die. Instead, the blood flow stopped, and he begged any and all to finish him off. Another messenger came from Cleopatra with instructions to bring him to her, and he consented, rejoicing that Cleopatra was still alive.

She would not open the door, but tossed ropes out of a window. After Antony was securely trussed up, she and her handmaidens hauled him up into the monument. This nearly finished him off. After dragging him in through the window, they laid him on a couch. Cleopatra tore off her clothes and covered him with them. She raved and cried, beat her breasts, and engaged in self-mutilation. Antony told her to calm down, asked for a glass of wine, and died upon finishing it.

The site of their mausoleum is uncertain, though the Egyptian Antiquities Service believes that it is in or near the temple of Taposiris Magna , southwest of Alexandria. Caesarion , Cleopatra's son by Caesar, was proclaimed pharaoh by the Egyptians after Alexandria fell to Octavian. Caesarion was captured and killed, his fate reportedly sealed when one of Octavian's advisers paraphrased Homer: "It is bad to have too many Caesars. The three children of Cleopatra and Antony were spared and taken back to Rome, where they were taken care of by Antony's wife Octavia Minor.

Cleopatra was regarded as a great beauty, even in the ancient world. In his Life of Antony , Plutarch remarks that "judging by the proofs which she had had before this of the effect of her beauty upon Caius Caesar and Gnaeus the son of Pompey, she had hopes that she would more easily bring Antony to her feet. For Caesar and Pompey had known her when she was still a girl and inexperienced in affairs, but she was going to visit Antony at the very time when women have the most brilliant beauty. Cassius Dio also spoke of Cleopatra's allure: "For she was a woman of surpassing beauty, and at that time, when she was in the prime of her youth, she was most striking; she also possessed a most charming voice and knowledge of how to make herself agreeable to everyone.

Being brilliant to look upon and to listen to, with the power to subjugate everyone, even a love-sated man already past his prime, she thought that it would be in keeping with her role to meet Caesar, and she reposed in her beauty all her claims to the throne. These accounts influenced later cultural depictions of Cleopatra, which typically present her using her charms to influence the most powerful men in the Western world.

Cleopatra was also renowned for her intellect. Plutarch writes that she could speak at least nine languages and rarely had need of an interpreter. The high degree of inbreeding amongst the Ptolemies is also illustrated by Cleopatra's immediate ancestry, of which a reconstruction is shown below. It has often been said that "there was not one drop of Egyptian blood in the Ptolemaic line", [69] and that the Romans, in all their anti-Cleopatra propaganda, made no mention of any illegitimacy against her.

Supplementary Information

Some of Cleopatra's ancestors were the same person. For instance, her mother was her father's niece and thus not only her mother but also her cousin. This family tree attempts to present those relationships in a more easily-understood format. From Infogalactic: the planetary knowledge core. Jump to: navigation , search. For other uses, see Cleopatra disambiguation.

File:Limestone stela of a high priest of god Ptah. It bears the cartouches of Cleopatra and Caesarion. From Egypt. Ptolemaic Period. Main article: Cultural depictions of Cleopatra. Retrieved Smithsonian Magazine. Behind the Name. Retrieved 4 April Tiepolo's Cleopatra. Macmillan Education AU.

http://leondumoulin.nl/language/known/the-hunt-for-hitlers-gold.php

俄克拉何马州克利奥帕特拉的《资料读物》系列在古典文化-cleopatra a sourcebook oklahoma series in classical culture .pdf

Retrieved 10 February Oxford University, July 16, Retrieved August 12, The Walters Art Museum. BBC News. University of Chicago. ISBN The family tree and short discussions of the individuals can be found on pages Hegesippus, Historiae i. Lucan , Bellum civile ix. Macrobius, Saturnalia iii.


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    Piye Shabaka Shebitku Taharqa Tanutamun. Sergeant says when Antony followed Cleopatra to Alexandria several months after their meeting at Tarsus he did not hesitate to leave his affairs of state to spend the winter with her. During his time in Alexandria, Weigall says, Antony experienced luxurious living with Cleopatra.

    Roller says Antony likely considered the visit to Alexandria a vacation which implies he did not follow Cleopatra to Egypt out of love.

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    Tyldesley agrees and points out that even though Cleopatra bore him twins after he left Alexandria, he made no attempt to see them or her for three years. She says this long time apart implies that not only had Antony considered the visit simply a vacation from his normal life, but that Cleopatra may have also been satisfied that their affair had created two additional heirs to her throne.

    These points seem to show that even though their relationship was based on attraction and mutual political need, neither party was likely lovesick for the other. Weigall once again offers the romantic notion that Cleopatra was sad and depressed during their time apart. He says Cleopatra would have been anxiously waiting for Antony to send for her or return, but he was overcome by political problems in Rome and never did. Whatever Cleopatra may have truly felt about her separation from Antony, the fact is there is little information about her activities during that time.

    Sergeant points out that the ancient historians only discuss Cleopatra during her involvement with Antony. There is speculation among historians about why Antony summoned Cleopatra to the meeting in Antioch where they renewed their alliance three years later. However, even Weigall admits that Antony probably summoned her because he needed their political alliance renewed. Passion may have played a part in the renewal of their relationship but it is clear they needed each other politically. Stacy Schiff points out that whatever the cause, it was at this time that Antony left Octavia and never saw her or Rome again.

    Sergeant and Weigall discuss the possibility that Cleopatra and Antony were married in Antioch. Sergeant states that even though there is no record of the marriage by the classical authors, the evidence exists in Egyptian coins that were struck with the image of Cleopatra on one side and Antony on the other. Weigall goes so far to say there was little doubt that Antony and Cleopatra were married at this time.

    He cites the evidence on the coins and the fact that Antony and Cleopatra were now living together.