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Contemporary Landscapes of Contemplation.

Unique artwork Contemplation from the artist François-Régis Lemonnier, Landscape style

Publisher: Routledge , This specific ISBN edition is currently not available. View all copies of this ISBN edition:. Synopsis About this title Contemplative landscape and contemplative space are familiar terms in the areas of design, landscape architecture and architecture.

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George Crabbe , the Suffolk regional poet, also wrote topographical poems, as did William Wordsworth , of which Lines written a few miles above Tintern Abbey is an obvious example. Auden 's " In Praise of Limestone " uses a limestone landscape as an allegory. Subgenres of topographical poetry include the country house poem , written in 17th-century England to compliment a wealthy patron, and the prospect poem , describing the view from a distance or a temporal view into the future, with the sense of opportunity or expectation. When understood broadly as landscape poetry and when assessed from its establishment to the present, topographical poetry can take on many formal situations and types of places.

Common aesthetic registers of which topographical poetry makes use include pastoral imagery, the sublime , and the picturesque , which include images of rivers, ruins, moonlight, birdsong, and clouds, peasants, mountains, caves, and waterscapes. Though describing a landscape or scenery, topographical poetry often, at least implicitly, addresses a political issue or the meaning of nationality in some way. The description of the landscape therefore becomes a poetic vehicle for a political message. The Vision on Mount Snowdon ………………………… A hundred hills their dusky backs upheaved All over this still ocean, and beyond, Far, far beyond, the vapours shot themselves In headlands, tongues, and promontory shapes, Into the sea, the real sea, that seemed To dwindle and give up its majesty, Usurped upon as far as sight could reach.

In particular, after William Gilpin 's Observations on the River Wye was published in , the idea of the picturesque began to influence artists and viewers. Gilpin advocated approaching the landscape "by the rules of picturesque beauty," [57] which emphasized contrast and variety. From the 18th century, a taste for the sublime in the natural landscape emerged alongside the idea of the sublime in language; that is elevated rhetoric or speech.


The poor condition of workers, the new class conflicts, and the pollution of the environment all led to a reaction against urbanism and industrialisation and a new emphasis on the beauty and value of nature and landscape. The poet William Wordsworth was a major contributor to the literature of landscape, [62] as was his contemporary poet and novelist Walter Scott. Also influenced by Romanticism's approach to landscape was the American novelist Fenimore Cooper , who was admired by Victor Hugo and Balzac and characterized as the "American Scott.

Landscape in Chinese poetry has often been closely tied to Chinese landscape painting, which developed much earlier than in the West. Many poems evoke specific paintings, and some are written in more empty areas of the scroll itself. Many painters also wrote poetry, especially in the scholar-official or literati tradition. Shan shui painting and poetry shows imaginary landscapes, though with features typical of some parts of South China; they remain popular to the present day. Fields and Gardens poetry is one of many Classical Chinese poetry genres. One of the main practitioners of the Fields and Gardens poetry genre was Tao Yuanming also known as Tao Qian — , among other names or versions of names.

Many landscape photographs show little or no human activity and are created in the pursuit of a pure, unsullied depiction of nature [71] devoid of human influence, instead featuring subjects such as strongly defined landforms, weather, and ambient light. As with most forms of art, the definition of a landscape photograph is broad, and may include urban settings, industrial areas, and nature photography.

The earliest forms of art around the world depict little that could really be called landscape , although ground-lines and sometimes indications of mountains, trees or other natural features are included. The earliest "pure landscapes" with no human figures are frescos from Minoan Greece of around BCE. For a coherent depiction of a whole landscape, some rough system of perspective, or scaling for distance, is needed, and this seems from literary evidence to have first been developed in Ancient Greece in the Hellenistic period, although no large-scale examples survive.

More ancient Roman landscapes survive, from the 1st century BCE onwards, especially frescos of landscapes decorating rooms that have been preserved at archaeological sites of Pompeii , Herculaneum and elsewhere, and mosaics. The Chinese ink painting tradition of shan shui "mountain-water" , or "pure" landscape, in which the only sign of human life is usually a sage, or a glimpse of his hut, uses sophisticated landscape backgrounds to figure subjects, and landscape art of this period retains a classic and much-imitated status within the Chinese tradition.

Both the Roman and Chinese traditions typically show grand panoramas of imaginary landscapes, generally backed with a range of spectacular mountains — in China often with waterfalls and in Rome often including sea, lakes or rivers. These were frequently used to bridge the gap between a foreground scene with figures and a distant panoramic vista, a persistent problem for landscape artists.

A major contrast between landscape painting in the West and East Asia has been that while in the West until the 19th century it occupied a low position in the accepted hierarchy of genres , in East Asia the classic Chinese mountain-water ink painting was traditionally the most prestigious form of visual art. However, in the West, history painting came to require an extensive landscape background where appropriate, so the theory did not entirely work against the development of landscape painting — for several centuries landscapes were regularly promoted to the status of history painting by the addition of small figures to make a narrative scene, typically religious or mythological.

Dutch Golden Age painting of the 17th century saw the dramatic growth of landscape painting, in which many artists specialized, and the development of extremely subtle realist techniques for depicting light and weather.

Contemporary Landscapes of Contemplation

The popularity of landscapes in the Netherlands was in part a reflection of the virtual disappearance of religious painting in a Calvinist society, and the decline of religious painting in the 18th and 19th centuries all over Europe combined with Romanticism to give landscapes a much greater and more prestigious place in 19th-century art than they had assumed before.

In England, landscapes had initially been mostly backgrounds to portraits, typically suggesting the parks or estates of a landowner, though mostly painted in London by an artist who had never visited the site.

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By the beginning of the 19th century the English artists with the highest modern reputations were mostly dedicated landscapists, showing the wide range of Romantic interpretations of the English landscape found in the works of John Constable , J. Turner and Samuel Palmer. However all these had difficulty establishing themselves in the contemporary art market, which still preferred history paintings and portraits.

In Europe, as John Ruskin said, [75] and Sir Kenneth Clark confirmed, landscape painting was the "chief artistic creation of the nineteenth century", and "the dominant art", with the result that in the following period people were "apt to assume that the appreciation of natural beauty and the painting of landscape is a normal and enduring part of our spiritual activity" [76].

Contemplation on Reality: Group Exhibition of “Landscape of Mind” Unveiled at ARTMIA Gallery

The Romantic movement intensified the existing interest in landscape art, and remote and wild landscapes, which had been one recurring element in earlier landscape art, now became more prominent. To this he added a quasi-mystical Romanticism. French painters were slower to develop landscape painting, but from about the s Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot and other painters in the Barbizon School established a French landscape tradition that would become the most influential in Europe for a century, with the Impressionists and Post-Impressionists for the first time making landscape painting the main source of general stylistic innovation across all types of painting.

In the United States , the Hudson River School , prominent in the middle to late 19th century, is probably the best-known native development in landscape art. These painters created works of mammoth scale that attempted to capture the epic scope of the landscapes that inspired them. The work of Thomas Cole , the school's generally acknowledged founder, has much in common with the philosophical ideals of European landscape paintings — a kind of secular faith in the spiritual benefits to be gained from the contemplation of natural beauty.

Some of the later Hudson River School artists, such as Albert Bierstadt , created less comforting works that placed a greater emphasis with a great deal of Romantic exaggeration on the raw, even terrifying power of nature. The best examples of Canadian landscape art can be found in the works of the Group of Seven , prominent in the s. The term neo-romanticism is applied in British art history, to a loosely affiliated school of landscape painting that emerged around and continued until the early s.

This movement was motivated in part as a response to the threat of invasion during World War II. Landscape with scene from the Odyssey , Rome , c. Albert Bierstadt , The Matterhorn circa From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Landscape disambiguation.

Tundra in Siberia. Taiga boreal forest , Alaska.

The Contemplative Landscapes of German Romantic Painter Caspar David Friedrich

A desert : the rainshadow region of Tirunelveli , India. A wetland : Lahemaa National Park in Estonia. The Aletsch Glacier , the largest glacier in the Swiss Alps. Large fields of modern farmland, Dorset , England. Main articles: Landscape archaeology and Historical ecology.

Contemporary Landscapes of Contemplation - rebeccakrinke

See also: Pastoral , British regional literature , and American literary regionalism. Main articles: Landscape photography , Conservation photography , and Aerial photography. Main articles: Landscape painting and Aerial landscape art. Raphael , Madonna in the Meadow - Spring in Kiangnan by Wen Cheng-Ming lower half detail. Paul Nash , Wire Cross-disciplinarity, landscape ecology, and sustainability science. Landscape Ecology Hobbs Eds. Key Topics in Landscape Ecology. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. Landscape ecology. In: S. Jorgensen ed , Encyclopedia of Ecology. Elsevier, Oxford. Vicenzotti, V.