Given the high thermal design power of high-speed computer CPUs and components, modern motherboards nearly always include heat sinks and mounting points for fans to dissipate excess heat. Motherboards are produced in a variety of sizes and shape called computer form factor , some of which are specific to individual computer manufacturers. However, the motherboards used in IBM-compatible systems are designed to fit various case sizes.
As of [update] , most desktop computer motherboards use the ATX standard form factor — even those found in Macintosh and Sun computers, which have not been built from commodity components. A case's motherboard and power supply unit PSU form factor must all match, though some smaller form factor motherboards of the same family will fit larger cases. Computers generally use highly integrated, miniaturized and customized motherboards. This is one of the reasons that laptop computers are difficult to upgrade and expensive to repair.
Often the failure of one laptop component requires the replacement of the entire motherboard, which is usually more expensive than a desktop motherboard. It is a special type of integrated circuit socket designed for very high pin counts.
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A CPU socket provides many functions, including a physical structure to support the CPU, support for a heat sink, facilitating replacement as well as reducing cost , and most importantly, forming an electrical interface both with the CPU and the PCB. CPU sockets on the motherboard can most often be found in most desktop and server computers laptops typically use surface mount CPUs , particularly those based on the Intel x86 architecture.
With the steadily declining costs and size of integrated circuits , it is now possible to include support for many peripherals on the motherboard. By combining many functions on one PCB , the physical size and total cost of the system may be reduced; highly integrated motherboards are thus especially popular in small form factor and budget computers. A typical motherboard will have a different number of connections depending on its standard and form factor.
It can sometimes also have a PCI-E 4x slot will vary between brands and models. These allow 2 to 4 graphics cards to be linked together, to allow better performance in intensive graphical computing tasks, such as gaming, video editing, etc. Motherboards are generally air cooled with heat sinks often mounted on larger chips, such as the Northbridge , in modern motherboards.
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Passive cooling , or a single fan mounted on the power supply , was sufficient for many desktop computer CPU's until the late s; since then, most have required CPU fans mounted on their heat sinks , due to rising clock speeds and power consumption. Most motherboards have connectors for additional computer fans and integrated temperature sensors to detect motherboard and CPU temperatures and controllable fan connectors which the BIOS or operating system can use to regulate fan speed.
Some small form factor computers and home theater PCs designed for quiet and energy-efficient operation boast fan-less designs.
This typically requires the use of a low-power CPU, as well as a careful layout of the motherboard and other components to allow for heat sink placement. Standard motherboards use electrolytic capacitors to filter the DC power distributed around the board.
These capacitors age at a temperature-dependent rate, as their water based electrolytes slowly evaporate. This can lead to loss of capacitance and subsequent motherboard malfunctions due to voltage instabilities. However, many manufacturers deliver substandard capacitors,  which significantly reduce life expectancy. Inadequate case cooling and elevated temperatures around the CPU socket exacerbate this problem. Mid-range and high-end motherboards, on the other hand, use solid capacitors exclusively.
Motherboards contain some non-volatile memory to initialize the system and load some startup software, usually an operating system , from some external peripheral device. At power-up, the central processor would load its program counter with the address of the boot ROM and start executing instructions from the ROM. These instructions initialized and tested the system hardware displayed system information on the screen, performed RAM checks, and then loaded an initial program from a peripheral device.
If none was available, then the computer would perform tasks from other memory stores or display an error message, depending on the model and design of the computer and the ROM version. Non-operating system boot programs are still supported on modern IBM PC-descended machines, but nowadays it is assumed that the boot program will be a complex operating system such as Microsoft Windows or Linux. When power is first supplied to the motherboard, the BIOS firmware tests and configures memory, circuitry, and peripherals.
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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Motherboard disambiguation. Main article: Comparison of computer form factors. Main article: Computer cooling. We stock over 25, laptop motherboard replacement in bangalore by all manufacturers. We will let you know the price and stock availability. As soon as you confirm and make the payment, we will ship the motherboard to your address.
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